Vanderlyn depicts Indians as quaint curiosities, gentle spirits, or awestruck children of nature in paintings such as his early landscape views of Niagara Falls and, toward the end of his career, The Landing of Columbus.
Creation and development Concept left Jerry Robinson 's concept sketch of the Joker. Veidt's grinning visage inspired the Joker design.
Bill FingerBob Kaneand Jerry Robinson are credited with creating the Joker, but their accounts of the character's conception differ, each providing his own version of events.
Finger's, Kane's, and Robinson's versions acknowledge that Finger produced an image of actor Conrad Veidt in character as Gwynplaine a man with a disfigured face, giving him a perpetual grin in the film The Man Who Laughs as an inspiration for the Joker's appearance, and Robinson produced a sketch of a joker playing card right.
In a interview in The Amazing World of DC ComicsRobinson said he wanted a supreme arch-villain who could test Batman, but not a typical crime lord or gangster designed to be easily disposed. He wanted an exotic, enduring character as an ongoing source of conflict for Batman similar to the relationship between Sherlock Holmes and Professor Moriartydesigning a diabolically sinister-but-clownish villain.
He said that the name came first, followed by an image of a playing card from a deck he often had at hand: I wanted somebody that would make an indelible impression, would be bizarre, would be memorable like the Hunchback of Notre Dame or any other villains that had unique physical characters.
Finger thought the concept was incomplete, providing the image of Veidt with a ghastly, permanent rictus grin. Bill Finger and I created the Joker.
Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way I sum it up. Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and said, 'Here's the Joker'. Jerry Robinson had absolutely nothing to do with it, but he'll always say he created it till he dies.
He brought in a playing card, which we used for a couple of issues for him [the Joker] to use as his playing card. He said he created the character as Batman's larger-than-life nemesis when extra stories were quickly needed for Batman 1, and he received credit for the story in a college course: That was the first mention of it He can be credited and Bob himself, we all played a role in it.
The concept was mine.
Bill finished that first script from my outline of the persona and what should happen in the first story. He wrote the script of that, so he really was co-creator, and Bob and I did the visuals, so Bob was also.
I got a call from Bob Kane He had a new villain.
When I arrived he was holding a playing card. Apparently Jerry Robinson or Bob, I don't recall who, looked at the card and they had an idea for a character Bob made a rough sketch of it. At first it didn't look much like the Joker. It looked more like a clown. The volume I had was The Man Who Laughs — his face had been permanently operated on so that he will always have this perpetual grin.
And it looked absolutely weird. I cut the picture out of the book and gave it to Bob, who drew the profile and gave it a more sinister aspect. Then he worked on the face; made him look a little clown-like, which accounted for his white face, red lips, green hair. And that was the Joker!
The Joker initially appeared as a remorseless serial killer, modeled after a joker playing card with a mirthless grin, who killed his victims with " Joker venom ": Finger wanted the Joker to die because of his concern that recurring villains would make Batman appear inept, but was overruled by then-editor Whitney Ellsworth ; a hastily drawn panel, indicating that the Joker was still alive, was added to the comic.
By issue 13, Kane's work on the syndicated Batman newspaper strip left him little time for the comic book; artist Dick Sprang assumed his duties, and editor Jack Schiff collaborated with Finger on stories.
Around the same time, DC Comics found it easier to market its stories to children without the more mature pulp elements that had originated many superhero comics. During this period, the first changes in the Joker began to appear, portraying him more as a prankster than threat; when he kidnaps Robin, Batman pays the ransom by check, meaning that the Joker cannot cash it without being arrested.
Robinson said that other contemporary villains used guns, and the creative team wanted the Joker—as Batman's adversary—to be more resourceful.
InFinger wrote an origin story for the Joker in Detective Comicswhich introduced the characteristic of him formerly being the criminal Red Hoodand his disfigurement the result of a fall into a chemical vat. The backlash was inspired by Frederic Werthamwho hypothesized that mass media especially comic books was responsible for the rise in juvenile delinquencyviolence and homosexuality, particularly in young males.
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The Nationalization of Revenge. The sordid tale of Jane McCrea is one of the earliest and most popular revenge stories from the early Republic.
Following McCrea's death, the British suffered a devastating defeat at Saratoga. This list of LGBT writers includes writers who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender or otherwise non-heterosexual who have written about LGBT themes, elements or about LGBT issues (such as Jonny Frank).
Works of these authors are part of LGBT literature.. As this list includes writers from antiquity until the present, it is clearly understood that the term "LGBT" may not ideally describe. The Legal Hall of Fame highlights individuals who have received constant praise by their clients for continued excellence.
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