Sanford, declaring free soilunconstitutional. Northern Democrats, meanwhile, struggled to convince Americans that their policy of popular sovereignty still made sense. The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West.
Two Americas[ edit ] No visitor to the United States left a more enduring record of his travels and observations than the French writer and political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville, whose Democracy in America, first published inremains one of the most trenchant and insightful analyses of American social and political practices.
Tocqueville was far too shrewd an observer to be uncritical about the United States, but his verdict was fundamentally positive. One skeptic was the English novelist Charles Dickens, who first visited the United States in In everything of which it has made a boast—excepting its education of the people, and its care for poor children—it sinks immeasurably below the level I had placed it upon.
America in the 19th century, as throughout its history, generated expectations and passions that often conflicted with a reality at once more mundane and more complex.
America was both a freedom-loving and slave-holding society, a nation of expansive and primitive frontiers, a society with cities built on growing commerce and industrialization. Lands of promise[ edit ] By the national territory stretched over forest, plain, and mountain.
In the East, industry boomed. In the Midwest and the South, agriculture flourished. After the gold mines of California poured their precious ore into the channels of trade.
New England and the Middle Atlantic states were the main centers of manufacturing, commerce, and finance. Principal products of these areas were textiles, lumber, clothing, machinery, leather, and woolen goods.
The maritime trade had reached the height of its prosperity; vessels flying the American flag plied the oceans, distributing wares of all nations.
The South, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River and beyond, featured an economy centered on agriculture. Tobacco was important in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina.
In South Carolina, rice was an abundant crop. The climate and soil of Louisiana encouraged the cultivation of sugar. But cotton eventually became the dominant commodity and the one with which the South was identified.
Slaves cultivated all these crops.
The Midwest, with its boundless prairies and swiftly growing population, flourished. Europe and the older settled parts of America demanded its wheat and meat products. The introduction of labor-saving implements—notably the McCormick reaper a machine to cut and harvest grain —made possible an unparalleled increase in grain production.
These links established the economic interests that would undergird the political alliance of the Union from to The South lagged behind. It was not until the late s that a continuous line ran through the mountains connecting the lower Mississippi River area with the southern Atlantic seaboard.
Slavery and sectionalism[ edit ] One overriding issue exacerbated the regional and economic differences between North and South: Resenting the large profits amassed by Northern businessmen from marketing the cotton crop, many Southerners attributed the backwardness of their own section to Northern aggrandizement.
As far back as the Missouri Compromise insectional lines had been steadily hardening on the slavery question. In the North, sentiment for outright abolition grew increasingly powerful.
Southerners in general felt little guilt about slavery and defended it vehemently. In some seaboard areas, slavery by was well over years old; it was an integral part of the basic economy of the region.
Although the census showed that there were nearly four million slaves out of a total population of There were someslave owners out of about 1. Fifty percent of these slave owners owned no more than five slaves. Twelve percent owned 20 or more slaves, the number defined as turning a farmer into a planter.Forces Between Nationalism and Sectionalism in the 19th Century Words | 9 Pages.
and Sectionalism? During the course of American History, and especially after the War for Independence, Nationalism and Sectionalism contributed and interacted with each other to shape the development of the United States of America.
An Introduction to the History of Sectionalism and the Breakup of the United States PAGES 5.
WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: slavery, sectionalism, break up of us. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. Slavery and Sectionalism.
United States History. One issue, however, exacerbated the regional and economic differences between North and South: slavery. Resenting the large profits amassed by Northern businessmen from marketing the cotton crop, Southerners attributed the backwardness of their own section to Northern aggrandizement.
Introduction Kentucky was one of the "border states" in the Civil War, both geographically and politically. It was situated on the dividing line between the northern and southern regions of the United States.
HIST United States to 3 Credits. A survey of early American history, including old world background, transformation of British institutions into American institutions, revolution, and the establishment of the Union with its temporary breakup in Civil War. Early Developments Although nationalism is unique to the modern world, some of its elements can be traced throughout history.
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The first roots of nationalism are probably to be found in the ancient Hebrews, who conceived of themselves as both a chosen In the United States, where nationalism had evinced itself in the doctrine of Manifest.