His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. His grandfather, Charles, had begun the process of unifying Western Europe, in the belief that all people should be Christian. All three, in addition to the political unification, believed that the church should be reformed and reorganized under the Pope, which helped their rise to power as the Carolingian Dynasty.
A loyal ally of the pope and a great conqueror, he forced conversions as he expanded the boundaries of his empire outward from his central territory, straddling present-day France and Germany.
In he was crowned emperor by the pope, legitimizing his rule over the former Roman empire in western Europe.
After his death, he became legendary; it is this legendary Charlemagne, the most perfect Christian king, symbol of the spirit of the Crusades, and favorite of heaven, who is presented in The Song of Roland as leader of the Frankish troops and Roland's uncle and avenger.
His name means literally, "Charles the Great.
In The Song of Roland, however, he is the hero. He is one of the twelve peers of France, Charlemagne's nephew and favorite, a skillful and extremely bold warrior and understands the Frankish campaign in Spain as a crusade, allowing no compromise with the Saracens.
His sometimes showy boldness and his great popularity among the Franks and success on the battlefield arouse the venomous resentment of his stepfather, Ganelon, who arranges with the Saracens the ambush at Roncesvals.
He dies a martyr's death at Roncesvals and is directly taken up to Paradise by saints and angels. The rest of the poem recounts how Charlemagne avenges his death.
At Roncesvals, Olivier sees how the Franks will be overwhelmed by the sheer numbers of the Saracens and urges Roland to blow his oliphant and call back to Charlemagne for aid.
Roland is too proud to do so, angering Olivier, but the two end their quarrel before dying, remaining the greatest and most tender of companions. Olivier, along with Roland and Turpin, is taken back to France for burial by Charlemagne's men.
The way he battles against the pagans reflects the views put forth in Pope Urban II's famous speech at the Council of Clermont inthe direct inspiration for the First Crusade. He is the last to die besides Roland; when he sees Roland faint, Turpin tenderly sets out for a stream to fetch some water for his dear comrade, but, mortally wounded, he falls down dead before reaching the water.
Along with Olivier and Roland, he is taken by Charlemagne's men back to France for burial. He resents his stepson's boastfulness and great popularity among the Franks and success on the battlefield.
When Roland nominates him as messenger to the Saracens, Ganelon is so deeply offended that he vows vengeance. This vengeance becomes treachery as Ganelon plots with the pagan Blancandrin the ambush at Roncesvals. At the end, justice is served when Ganelon's comrade Pinabel is defeated in a trial-by-combat, showing that Ganelon is a traitor in the eyes of God.
Thus Ganelon is torn limb from limb by four fiery horses. While the others urge that Ganelon be acquitted and allowed to continue serving Charlemagne, Thierry argues that, because Roland should have been immune from personal attacks while he was in Charlemagne's service, Ganelon's action was not private vengeance but a betrayal of the emperor.
Ganelon's friend Pinabel then challenges him to trial-by-combat. Pinabel is the mightier warrior, but God intervenes to allow Thierry victory. From this proof of God's judgment of the matter, the Franks realize that Ganelon is the basest traitor and kill him.
He at first convinces Charlemagne's council of barons to let Ganelon live, but he is challenged by Thierry, and killed by the weaker man in trial-by-combat, thus showing with whom God's favor lies. Pinabel's thirty kinsmen who, according to the protocol of such things, volunteer to be hostages to ensure that Pinabel will show up at the appointed time and place and conduct himself properly during the battle are rather gratuitously hung at the end of the poem.
He is prudent and loyal, but his prudence sometimes leads him astray, as when he urges moderation and mercy toward Marsilla.
He is less under the sway of his passions than Charlemagne or any of the rest of Charlemagne's barons; when the Franks weep and faint upon seeing the carnage at Roncesvals, "Naimes profoundly pities all of them" He fights nobly in the battle against Baligant's army.
Gautier is to lead a thousand Franks in scouting around the hilltops and ravines around the pass. He is the third to last to perish at Roncesvals, just before Turpin and Roland. Charlemagne then sent two of his counts, Basan and Basil, over to the pagans to negotiate and the pagans chopped off their heads.
Roland reminds the king of this incident when urging him not to pay any attention to Marsilla's later offer of peace; Ganelon too remembers the two ill-fated messengers when he takes such offense at Roland nominating him as an envoy.
She dies of grief the moment she hears of Roland's death. Years later, Baligant finally arrives with an enormous army and sets out to give Charlemagne battle. Charlemagne and he are evenly matched as far as skill and strength go, but, because of a light touch of angelic intervention, Charlemagne is able to kill Baligant, thus avenging Roland and conquering Spain at a stroke.Religious reform.
Charlemagne’s military conquests, diplomacy, and efforts to impose a unified administration on his kingdom were impressive proof of his ability to play the part of a traditional Frankish king.
His religious policy reflected his capacity to respond positively to forces of change . Summary Analysis. Charlemagne’s Legacy. While it appears that Charlemagne kept the spirit of Augustine’s City of God alive, he apparently misunderstood the letter of intent. In other words, if Charlemagne was truly devoted to, and well-versed in Augustine’s City of God, it seems that he made Augustine’s exceptional use of force, the rule.
Female: But there's still an emperor in the East who has moral authority. People still look to that emperor in the East in the Byzantine Empire.
Let's think about what happened in Western Europe that allowed for Charlemagne to become the new emperor. Male: The first thing that's important to understand, the Western Roman Empire basically fell. The code has since been described as Charlemagne's Code of Chivalry.
The Song of Roland was the most famous 'chanson de geste' and was composed between , describing the betrayal of Count Roland at the hand of Ganelon, and his resulting death in the Pyranee Mountains at the hands of the Saracens.
It seems like one of the most important facts in my history class this past year was that Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in the year Why is this event so important? I’ve seen it pop up numerous times online and in history books and I still don’t have a clear cut answer.
World Civilizations Chapter 10 study guide by tara07 includes 39 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany stressed importance of mystical union with God.