Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Associations between adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, and adult alcohol problems.
Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers.
Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage incidence rate ratio, 1. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors.
Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease.
The promotion of healthy psychosocial experiences for children is a necessary and potentially cost-effective target for the prevention of age-related disease.
Interventions targeting modifiable risk factors eg, smoking, inactivity, and poor diet in adult life have only limited efficacy in preventing age-related disease. First, depression has been linked to multiple biological abnormalities, including vascular pathologic changes, autonomic function changes, hypercoagulability, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity.
These abnormalities tend to cluster in the same individuals. Because adverse childhood experiences may disrupt the physiological response to stress, 2223 they may influence the risk for depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers.
Among adverse childhood experiences, 3 stand out as contributing factors: First, low SES in childhood is a recognized risk factor for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease.
Childhood maltreatment is a documented predictor of adult depression. Three important questions have therefore been left unaddressed. First, are the effects of different adverse childhood experiences distinct from each other?
To the extent that multiple adverse childhood experiences co-occur in the same individuals, it is possible that their effects on adult health are not independent and unique.
Second, are the effects of different adverse childhood experiences pervasive in different biological systems?
Each adverse childhood experience may influence a single age-related-disease risk in a single stress-sensitive system, or, alternately, each adverse experience could influence multiple age-related-disease risks.
Third, are the effects of adverse childhood experiences independent of the influence of other known risk factors for age-related disease?
Adverse psychosocial experiences in childhood are likely to be accompanied by other developmental risk factors for poor adult health, including family history of disease, 38 low birth weight, 39 and childhood overweight.
The present study addresses these 3 gaps.The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, (3), . More and more, studies are showing the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on health and well-being.
And, there is a clear dose-response relationship; the more ACEs the person has encountered, the greater their risk for long-term health consequences (e.g., obesity, cancer, alcoholism.
Childhood experiences, both positive and negative, have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong health and opportunity. As such, early experiences are an important public health issue.
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Childhood experiences, both positive and negative, have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong health and opportunity. Adverse childhood experiences appeared to be associated with changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems in children and adults (see Table 1).Previous research showed that experiences during child development (experience-dependent information) could influence maturational processes and, thus, exert long-term effects.
Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth Richard Kennedy, Executive Director Andrew Jackson Building, 9th Fl Deaderick St Nashville, TN