Find articles by Erin R. To view a copy of this license, visit http: Abstract Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory.
Import into RefWorks 1. Back Ground Antiseptic and disinfectants are chemical agents that inhibit or destroy microorganisms on living tissue antiseptics and inanimate surfaces and objects disinfectants [ 1 ].
These chemical agents are used extensively in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard surface applications.
In particular, they are an essential part of infection control practices and aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections [ 2 ]. This wide spread use of antiseptic and disinfectant products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular, whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants [ 3 ].
A wide variety of active chemical agents biocides are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years for antisepsis and disinfection including; alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine [ 4 ]. Most of these active agents demonstrate a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and they are used to reduce microbes on the living tissue or surface of medical equipments and other inanimate objects [ 1 ].
The mechanism of resistance to antiseptic and disinfectant solutions includes cellular impermeability, biofilm formation, efflux and mutations at the target site or over expression of a target site [ 5 ]. As a therapeutic significance a number of bacterial contaminants isolated from antiseptics and disinfectants have exhibited resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents.
It has also been reported that contaminated antiseptics and disinfectants exhibit decreased efficacy and effectiveness [ 6 ]. The response of different types of microorganisms to antiseptics and disinfectants vary and result in micro-biostatic or microbiocidal effects [ 5 ].
Multiple nosocomial out breaks have resulted from a lack of intrinsic antimicrobial activity of antiseptics, resistant pathogen, over dilution of the antiseptics, or the use of contaminated antiseptics [ 7 ]. Bacterial contamination of disinfectant solutions is common with preparation by unskilled personnel, use of unsterilized containers and prolonged use [ 1 ] with other contributing factors for the high levels of contamination dilution of disinfectants with tape water, inadequate care of stock solution bottles and long storage of the diluted disinfectants in the wards [ 8 ].
In adequate disinfection of medical devices or environmental surfaces may result from lack of intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the disinfectant, an incorrect choice of chemical disinfectant, a resistant pathogen, over dilution of the disinfectant, inadequate duration of disinfection, lack of contact between the disinfectant and the microbes, or the use of contaminated disinfectants [ 9 ].
With the emergence of pathogens such as methicillin—resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSAvancomycin resistant entericocci VRE and gram negative bacteria, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter species which are resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increased need for effective antisepsis and disinfection [ 10 ].
As with antibiotic resistance, resistance to these germicides may be an intrinsic property or may arise either by chromosomal gene mutation or by the acquisition of genetic materials [ 11 ].
As a result of this health care associated infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world [ 5 ].
The center for disease control and prevention CDC has estimated that health care associated infection accounts for an estimated 1. Despite best efforts to eliminate these infectious microorganisms, they continue to emerge and re-emerge which contribute to human illness and death especially as a result of hospital acquired infections.
The activity of biocides against microorganisms is not always consistent due to several basic methodological problems as well as high intrinsic resistance due to differences in membrane structure [ 14 ]. Persistent reports have shown that disinfectants designed for the control of infectious microorganisms are themselves subjected to microbial contamination [ 15 ].
It has become increasingly obvious that infections acquired in hospitals lead to increase morbidity and mortality which has also added noticeable to economic burden. As different researchers show that contaminated antiseptics or disinfectants pose a health risk to patients particularly in the pediatric and surgical wards [ 16 ].
Nosocomial infections associated with contaminated antiseptic products are difficult to assess. Generally these infections pose a problem of enormous magnitude globally by prolong hospitalization, increase cost of health care, and decrease the effectiveness of the treatment [ 19 ].
Our hospital had been using various antiseptics extensively, but there is no report on the microbial contamination of these biocides from any referral hospital from this part of the country.
Materials and Method 2. Gondar is km far from Addis Ababa to the northwest of Ethiopia. By the time being the University is working and striving for providing different services for the community including conducting different under graduate and post graduate programs and problem solving research activities.
This teaching hospital is one of the biggest tertiary level referral and teaching hospitals in the region. A large number of people from the surrounding areas and nearby regions visit the hospital both for inpatient and as an outpatient treatment.
This teaching hospital consists of an operating room, intensive care unit ICU13wards with beds, outpatient department, and one main laboratory. The study was carried out from March - June, Study Design A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted.
Information and antiseptic and disinfectant samples which were relevant to this study were collected from wards, laboratory rooms, intensive care unit ICUand inpatient department. Sample Size Determination During the study period there were a total of 4 types of antiseptic solutions ethanol alcohol, tincture iodine, savlon, and hydrogen peroxide and 1 disinfectant bleach which were in-use in wards, laboratory rooms, intensive care unit ICUand inpatient department were included in this study.
Sample Collection, Isolation and Identification 2. Sample Collection For the sake of consistency of the data obtained, samples were collected two times from each site with two weeks interval.
After mixing about 10ml diluted working solutions of antiseptics and disinfectants were collected aseptically with sterile test tubes with 15 ml capacity. Then the collected samples were immediately labeled and transported to the microbiology laboratory.
Preliminary identification of bacteria was made based on gram reaction, colony characteristics, and changes in physical appearance in differential media.culture of the goldfish, and the descriptions of freshwater and marine fauna and flora, for the use of the collector, but there is none of sufficiently wide scope to cover the entire field, and by concise, up-to .
The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Alberta brings you this flash animated video tutorial specifically relevant to your student laboratory courses, specifically microbiology. If you're a student at any school of biology, this information will be helpful for learning how to streak a plate and see bacterial culture growth.
If the bacteria colonies of the untreated dish is a closer percentile of the untreated after each trial, then that would mean bacterial resistance has grown. Otherwise I can do the percentage killed ( - = %) and see if the percentage grows smaller each trial. May 22, · Microbiology lab proceduree.
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No cable box required. Cancel anytime. Dec 18, · Streak a Bacterial Culture Anticeptics. Topics: Bacteria, Antiseptic, Gram staining Antiseptics Plate Streak Method for Colony Isolation 1- draw, with a china marker, on the outside of the agar portion, not the lid, of a Petri dish divided it into 4 sections labeled to the areas that will be tested with antiseptic.
Obtain a bacterial culture; insert a sterile swab into the culture re-suspending the bacteria by swirling the swab around the culture gently. As you remove the swab press the swab along the sides of the glass tube to remove excess liquid.