Guanlao, Mary Maren M. Rios, Gail Marian O. Anorexia Nervosa Thesis Statement:
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access The topic of anorexia nervosa and the ethic of forced feeding Essay Sample Learning is a relatively enduring change in behaviour or the capacity to behave in a given way which results from practice Chunk, Over the years people have been trying to understand learning and the debates that have occurred through the ages reoccur today in a variety of viewpoints about the purpose of education and how to encourage learning Hammond, Every conceivable theory has been seriously put forward but theorising about learning remains an exercise in generalisation and can often be as controversial as it seeks to be empirical.
For the purpose of medical education, every teacher has his or her own method of teaching style and preferred methods of teaching and I would like to compare and contrast two teaching methods that have been used in my practice with reference to educational theories and discuss the impact upon teaching learning.
Firstly I led the discussion to a small group of second year medical students on the topic of anorexia nervosa and the ethic of forced feeding. It was a compulsory session and I facilitated discussion among eight students. Although this session was also deemed to be compulsory, a significant number of trainees did not attend due to clinical workload.
Knowles, Looking at the differential attendance rates between the two groups gives rise to the issue of time factors on learning.
In fact many researchers have been concerned about the different kinds of educational time, namely instrumental time, time on task, academic learning time and dead time Anderson, There are however other factors such as motivation and attitude that may also explain the differential attendance rates.
Motivation is seen as need -related. So it is irrelevant whether the two sessions were compulsory but rather the internal motivation that is the determining factor in the attendance rate.
The Humanistic theory of Maslow is supported by the student centred learning of Carl Roger who differentiate two types of learning namely cognitive meaningless and experiential significant learning which correspond to academic and applied knowledge respectively.
Tay and Diener, It is also worth noting the difficulty of testing the theory and the ordering and definition of needs. Similarly even though Malcolmes Knowles explain the motivation to learn ,its main drawback lies in the little significance he attaches to the context and the social mechanism of deriving meaning and knowledge.
We now know that context and social factors are paramount in professional education. Tayler and Hamdy, Maslow theory of motivation is nevertheless consistent with Deci and Ryan Self Determination Theory which give importance to three innate and psychological needs Deci and Ryan, Competence which is the need to control the outcome and experience mastery, Relatedness which is the innate need to interact and Autonomy which is the innate drive to be the master of one owns life play an important role in the learning for both groups regardless of difference in level of prior knowledge that may exist among the second year medical students and the GP trainees group on anorexia nervous and mental capacity act respectively.
It is interesting to note that the Humanistic theories described above give little importance to the impact of prior knowledge.
In some ways, this is supported by John Locke, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, sets out the case that the human mind at birth is a complete, but receptive, blank slate scraped tablet or tabula rasa upon which experience imprints knowledge. Over the years though, there have been further theories putting forward that give serious consideration to the importance of prior knowledge and these would be particularly relevant in the learning of the two groups.
His transformation learning theory utilises disorientating dilemmas which often occur in the context of small group discussion where students are forced to reconsider their beliefs and prior knowledge in a way that will fit new experience in the rest of their world view.
There is some indication, though, that true transformation cannot occur until students get the opportunity to actively take steps that acknowledge their new belief for example in caring for a patient with anorexia nervosa who is rigidly adhering to their right to die and the ethic of forced feeding.
In relation to this, Jack Mezirow did not take into account the role of affective learning given that emotions can be difficult to manage in learners particularly where there is critical awareness and changing this can be problematic.
Similarly some critics argue that his theory gives too much weight to critical reflection and this on its own does not necessarily lead to transformative learning.
However one should be aware that concepts such as Leadership, ethics, and communications that are integral in medical training, requiring deep cognitive restructuringare best seen in transformation learning. The role of prior knowledge on learning is well supported by one of the most influential theorist in developmental psychology.
Piaget described the 4 stages of learning with the formal operational stage being the final stage of cognitive development which occurs from 11 to adulthood. Regardless of the type of teaching groups they belonged, both the second year medical students and the GP trainees, should be able to think abstractly and achieve skills such as inductive and deductive reasoning abilities.
They can make use of many strategies and resources for problem solving as they have developed complex thinking and hypothetical thinking skills and through hypothetical —deductive reasoning, they are able to identify the factors of a problem and deduce solutions. One of the major criticism of Piaget theory is that his work on cognitive development focused only on children and may not applied to adult learning.
Moreover his stage of formal operations may never be reached by some significant proportion of individuals. The integration of theory and practice is a challenge to students but the relevance of their professional knowledge can be achieved if the students are supported by a knowledgeable companion.
Another interesting idea described by Vygotsky which is far more relevant to my small group teaching as opposed to my lecture on mental capacity act is the transitional area which he referred to the Zone of Proximal Development.
In this respect, Intrapersonal speech in discussion with me as a more experienced person would provide a vital platform to transit the second year medical students to the level of maturation that they are capable of.
The concept of Scaffolding coined by Jerome Bruners ,who share the beliefs with Vygosky that social environment and social interactions are key elements of the learning process ,is also relevant here particularly in the small group discussion.
Pershap a model more consistent with adult learning is the Bloom taxonomy which were put forward by a team of cognitive psychologist in Bloom taxonomy, if appreciated by medical teachers and students and correctly applied, should make meta-cognition of the diagnostic process routine.PLATFORM * TRIBUNE The ethics of forced feeding in anorexia nervosa * 0 Philip C.
Hebert, MD, PhD, CCFP; Michael A. Weingarten, MA, BM, DPH G uidelines for withholding forced nutrition 24 kg. Her pulse rate was beats/min and her and hydration have applied largely to pa- . Nov 16, · The two primary eating disorders in Western countries are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Women constitute the primary sufferers of these diseases, with % to % and 1% to % suffering from anorexia and bulimia, respectively (Scott, Hardman, and Berrett, , p. 14).
(P C Hébert and M A Weingarten The ethics of forced feeding in anorexia nervosa. CMAJ. January 15; (2): ). Physicians or hospitals are at risk of legal action if their skills are brought into question.
Eating disorders are generally classified into two separate types, Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa. Sir William Gull coined the term Anorexia Nervosa, in the year ; he was one of Queen Victoria’s personal physicians.
The term originated from the Greek words ‘an’ and ‘orexis’ which means lack of . Anorexia Nervosa: The Ethical Dilemma of Force Feeding. Check it out, leave a comment. A. Anorexia nervosa, one of a number of eating disorders, is a disorder of self-starvation.
Simply put, a person who is anorexic refuses to eat normal amounts of food. 1.